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The Big Questions

Here are a few critical questions relative to natural origin theories. Dr. Werner has pondered these questions for many years. If you have an answer for any one of these questions, or can provide more scientific insight, please send a message to Dr. Werner (using the contact button at the bottom of this page). Please do not send a response that is simply conjecture or offers an excuse for why there is no answer.

 

The Natural Origin of the Universe (Big Bang)

Preamble:  Natural theories about the origin of the universe (such as the big bang theory and the string theory) suggest that the universe formed without the intervention of an outside metaphysical force. These theories contend that matter (atoms) and energy (heat, light, radiation, magnetic energy, etc.) and the natural laws of physics (motion, relativity, thermodynamics, etc.) interacted and formed the approximately 1022 stars and 1011 spiral galaxies that we see in the universe today.

Problem:  One natural law of physics, the first law of thermodynamics, states that matter and energy do not form from nothingness.

Question:  How did the universe form from nothingness, when matter and energy do not form naturally from nothingness?

Nearby Dwarf Galaxy

 

The Natural Origin of First Life (Abiogenesis)

Preamble:  Natural theories (abiogenesis) suggest that the first form of life--a single cell microscopic organism--formed naturally on the earth about four billion years ago. According to this theory, life began when simple molecules of methane, water, and carbon dioxide interacted with energy, in the form of lightning strikes, and coalesced into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins).

All living things today are comprised of and use the macromolecules DNA, RNA, and proteins (enzymes). There are no exceptions to this rule.

Problem:  Because of the biochemical law of mass action, macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) do not, can not, and will not form naturally from simple chemical molecules (in a sterile solution containing only simple molecules).

Question:  If macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) do not form naturally from simple molecules, how then did life form naturally in a primordial soup 4 billion years ago? In your answer be specific and give the chemical steps from simple molecules (water, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) to a simple single-cell microscopic organism. Please cite only scientific references that describe the natural chemical reactions that can produce either life or the necessary macromolecules for life (DNA, RNA, and proteins)

DNA is a macromolecule
DNA is a macromolecule.
DNA does not form spontaneously
yet is necessary for life.

 

The Natural Origin of Animal Groups (Evolution)

Preamble:  The theory of evolution states that a single-cell microscopic bacterium-like organism slowly changed into all of the seven major animal groups (corals, sponges, shellfish, worms, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates) over millions of years.

Nearly one billion fossils have been collected by museums since Darwin proposed his theory. These museum fossils are not just large animals, such as dinosaurs and mastodons, but also small, soft-bodied, and difficult to fossilize organisms, such as fossil bacteria, jellyfish, soft corals, soft-bodied worms, soft-bodied sponges, and animal embryos. (For photographs of these fossils, see Chapter 6, Evolution: The Grand Experiment: Quest for an Answer.)

Problem:  Despite an enormous fossil record, there are no intermediate fossils on the theoretical evolutionary lines between single-cell organisms and the seven major animal groups. Fossils of bacteria and the seven major animal groups (phyla) just show up in the fossil record with no evidence of one group changing into another.

Question:  Why does EVERY animal phyla group appear in the fossil record without evolutionary ancestors? If evolution occurred (if a single cell microscopic bacterium-like organism slowly changed into the seven major animal groups), why are there no fossils of the intermediate animals between these two groups? Why are there only fossils at the base of evolution diagrams (bacteria) and fossils at the tips of the diagrams (corals, sponges, shellfish, worms, arthropods, echinoderms, and fish), and no ancestors between the two?

Theoretical evolutionary diagram

(Adapted from the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse.)
Theoretical evolutionary diagram of the evolution of animals from a single cell bacterium-like organisms. No fossils have been found on these theoretical evolutionary lines. (See Chapter 7, Evolution: The Grand Experiment: Quest for an Answer.)

 

The Origin of Sedimentary Rock Layers (Geology)

Preamble Part 1:  The world is covered by a series of sedimentary rock layers  stacked one on top of the other. These stacked sedimentary rock layers can easily be seen in the Grand Canyon and along highways where roads were cut through rocks. The modern theory of geology says that these rock layers were laid down over millions of years. Typically, each layer represents more than a million years while sediment accumulations of one inch represent more than a thousands years.

Preamble Part 2:  The entire life cycle of a tree, growing, maturing, dying, rotting, and falling over, is usually less than 200 years and always less than 10,000 years. There are no exceptions to this rule.

Problem:  Throughout the world, there are many examples of fossilized trees standing upright and going through more than two layers of rock (see photo below).

Question:  How could a tree remain standing upright if the rock layers around the tree were being deposited over millions of years? In other words, why did the tree not die and fall over after just a few hundred years as the sediments were accumulating around the base? A mudslide is not a plausible answer since mud slides have great horizontal force and typically push small trees over. Vertical trees going through rock layers include not only large trees as seen below but also very small trees (three-inch tree trunks) in this same bluff.

 

Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon.
Sedimentary layers stacked on top of each other suggest
the earth is at least hundreds of millions of years old.

The Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, Canada
The Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Scientist pointing to a vertical fossil tree. Vertical fossils suggest that the rock layers were not laid down over millions of years, but over a much shorter time.

 

 

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